Wiþ gesnote ond geposum genim oxna lyb niþeweard gecnuwa wel wið wætre. gif hio sie grene ne do þu þær wæter to wring þonne on þæm neb.
Wiþ sarum weolorum gesmire mid hunige þa weoloras genim þonne æges felman bescead mid pipore lege on.
Wiþ wouum muþe genim ompran ond ealdne swines rysle wyrc to sealfe sete on þone won dæl.
Wiþ ceolan swile wiþ þon sceal eoforfearn eac swa ond gyþrifan wyl on meolce sup þonne ond gebeþe mid.
Wiþ ceolan swile bisceopwyrt aterlaþe niðewearde ond clatan wyl on ealað.

Select any Old English word to view its gloss


For mucus and colds, take [the] netherward [part of] oxna lyb, pound it well with water (if it is green, do not put water into it), then squeeze it into the nose.
For sore lips, smear the lips with honey, then take the membrane of an egg, sprinkle with pepper and lay [it] on.
For a rough mouth take dock and old fat of a pig, make into a salve, set on the rough part.
For swelling of the throat, for that [one] should boil polypody and also likewise corncockle in milk, then sip and bathe with [it].
For swelling of the throat, boil bishopwort, the lower part of black nightshade, and burdock in ale.


'Oxna Lyb' means 'healing wort for oxen' but probably refers to a plant named stinking hellebore.

Netherward part would be the lower half.

'Hio' is an alternative spelling of 'heo'.

'Ompran' is an old name for the dock plant.

'Eoforfearn' is a fern more commonly known in modern English as polypody.

'Gyþrifan' is a plant with pink flowers known in modern English as corncockle.

Bishopwort, also known as purple betony, was a commonly used medicinal plant used to treat everything from drunkeness, gout, snake bites and bad dreams.

The literal translation of 'attorlaþe' could be 'venom fiend' or 'bile fiend'. This could refer to a number of plants such as betony, cockspur, hairy finger grass, or black nightshade. The exact meaning is still contested but since the recipe already includes bishopwort - also called purple betony - it seems likely it means black nightshade.

'Clatan' is the Old English name for burdock. It is sometimes also referred to as 'Foxes Clate'.

The '' ending is because 'ealu' is an irregular minor noun.

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