Advanced Pronunciation Guide
The letters of the Old English are: A B C D E F G H I K L M N O P Q R S T U X Y Ƿ Þ Ð Æ.
You'll notice that, unlike modern English, there is no 'j', 'v', 'w', or 'z', but that's not to say these sounds are not represented in Old English. Similarly, you'll notice there are four letters which are not present in modern English: Ƿ, Þ, Ð, Æ. The Old English wynn, Ƿ, is phonetically identical to the modern 'w' and so is replaced by 'w' in the material below to prevent confusion with the letter 'p'.
Let's explore how these letters sound, starting with the consonants. The consonants below are categorised by their place of articulation. You can select any of the coloured IPA symbols in the row below to hear how they sound.
against top teeth
You'll notice in the above examples that some letters can represent multiple sounds. There are specific rules governing when to change the sound of a consonant.
F is pronounced the same as the modern English [f] when at the start or end of a word, or when it is beside an unvoiced consonant. However, it is pronounced like [v] if it comes between two vowels (heofan, seofan, yfel), or between a vowel and a voiced consonant within a word (wulfas).
S also changes in the same way, being pronounced like [z] when between two vowels (dysig, husian, ceosan).
C is pronounced [tʃ] like 'ch' when before or after a front vowel (i, e, æ), for example, cild, lice, ceaster are pronounced 'child', 'lich', and 'chester'. If 'c' comes before or after a back vowel (a, o, u) or a consonant, it is pronounced like [k], for example, cyning, cræft, cnapa.
G can be pronounced one of three ways depending on what it occurs in a word. Before front vowels (i, e, æ), the 'g' is pronounced , like a modern 'y' in 'yet'. For example, þegen, geond, werig. If 'g' is before or after a consonant or back vowel (a, o, u), the g is pronounced [g] like in 'garden'. For example, god, gar, lang. Between two back vowels, g is pronounced [ɣ]. For example, boga, dragan. This sound is no longer used in modern English and is hard for Anglophones to pronounce.
Sc is pronounced [ ʃ ] like the modern English 'sh', so words like biscop, scip, fisc, scyld are all pronounced like their modern English equivalents, bishop, ship, fish and shield. There are only two instances where 'sc' is pronounced like 'sk'. The first is if the 'sc' occurs due to a compound like 'iscald - ice cold'. The second is when 'sc' occurs before or after a back vowel (a, o, u). For example, ascian and tusc are pronounced 'askian' and 'tusk'.
Cg in Old English is pronounced [ʒ] like 'dg' in modern English. So 'brycg' is pronounced just like its modern equivalent 'bridge'. Similarly, 'ecg' is pronounced like its modern equivalent 'edge'.
As you may have noticed, in many instances where a consonant changes sound in Old English, it is preserved in the modern English spelling. We write 'heaven', 'ship', 'bridge', 'ask' and 'dizzy' as these are how the words have always been pronounced and the letters we use to represent these sounds have evolved. However, it is important to remember that there are no silent letters in Old English so all letters are pronounced.
Vowels can be sorted into two categories: back vowels and front vowels. Back vowels are vowels produced with the tongue further back in the mouth like (a, o, u). Front vowels are vowels produced with the tongue in the front of the mouth like (i, e, æ).
Vowels can also be long or short. In linguistics, vowel length is the perceived duration of a vowel sound and in Old English, vowel length can substantially change how a word is said, and how a word is conjugated. In the table below, the long vowels are marked with a macron (¯) above the letter.
|Old English Vowels|
|Letter||IPA Symbol||Explanation||Old English|
|a||like the 'a' in 'can'|
|ā||like the 'a' in 'artist'|
|æ||like the 'a' in 'mat'|
|ǣ||like the 'a' in 'bad'|
|e||like the 'e' in 'bed'|
|ē||like the 'ay' in 'may'|
|i||like the 'i' in 'bit'|
|ī||like the 'ee' in 'seen'|
|o||like the 'o' in 'cough'|
|ō||like the 'o' in 'so'|
|u||like the 'u' in 'pull'|
|ū||like the 'oo' in 'cool'|
|y||like the 'ew' in 'few'|
|ȳ||like the 'u' in 'mule'|
It is more helpful to think in terms of sounds rather than letters, when considering the construction of Old English words. While long and short vowels are not marked in manuscripts, sound changes are not arbitrary, and how a vowel is pronounced can greatly affects how a word conjugates or declines.